No. No one can travel internationally using only a U.S. passport number. Travelers must present an original, physical version of a U.S. passport book or U.S. passport card upon entering a foreign country and when returning to the United States from a foreign country.
The U.S. passport book and passport card are highly secure documents with numerous security features designed to prevent successful counterfeiting.
We do not recommend reporting your U.S. passport lost or stolen if your passport number was compromised. You should only report your U.S. passport lost or stolen if the original, physical version of the passport book or passport card has been lost or stolen. Once you report a U.S. passport lost or stolen, it is invalid and cannot be used for international travel.